Tag Archives: closures

Thoughts on the Go Programming Language

Part of the description of Go from its homepage states that it’s a “compiled language that feels like a dynamically typed, interpreted language”. In my relatively brief experience with the language, that is a statement I can attest to. I feel like an expert in Go could build natively-compiled applications at a rate comparable to Python over C++ or Java. Part of this has to do with its extensive library, and partly because the language is just not particularly complicated. Not to mention that the language’s concurrency model is very intuitive.

My initial interest in Go stemmed from goroutines. These implement concurrency in an extremely simple and highly-abstracted fashion: concurrently-executing functions. There isn’t much more to it to than that; goroutines are apparently multiplexed over a pool of host threads which are hidden from the programmer. You can let them spin off on their own and terminate, or  synchronize and communicate with them using message-passing in the form of channels. In this sense, concurrency in Go feels a lot like Erlang. Some other cool features include closures and array slices. Technically Go isn’t object-oriented, but you’re able mimic it by using interfaces and embedding methods into structures. Also, Go is garbage-collected.

Actually, the features of Go make it feel like a combination of a bunch of different languages. There’s obvious inspiration from C, and some from what feels like Java (interfaces, GC), Erlang (message-passing and concurrency), functional languages in general (closures) and Python. Lets dive into an example which illustrates a few of the things I’ve mentioned so far.

Here’s the (highly synthetic) situation: We’d like to compute the square roots of a list of floating-point numbers in parallel using our own hand-rolled function implementing Newton’s Method. We’re going to compute each square root in a separate goroutine and collect each value through a separate channel to that goroutine. To make things more interesting, we’ll package a bunch of it up using a closure.

/* Compute and return the square root of x. Note
 * that return type comes after function parameters */
func newtons_method (x float64) float64 {

	/* No parentheses around conditional */
	if x == 0.0 {
		panic ("Divide by zero!") // throw exception

	/* "Initialize" statement - variable type inferred by
 	 * compiler */
	last := float64(0.0)
	y := float64(x / 2.0)

	/* No "while" loops - iterate "for as long as" condition */
	for math.Fabs(last - y) > 0.0001 {
		last = y
		y = y - ((y * y - x) / (2 * y))

	return y

/* Given a slice of floats, compute their square roots in
 * parallel and print the results. Note variable name
 * precedes the type. */
func compute_sqrts (L []float64) {

	/* Type defined at compile-time */
	n := len (L)

	/* A "slice" definition - used here as expandable array */
	var chans []chan float64

	/* Fill the slice with channels */
	for i := 0; i < n; i++ {
		chans = append(chans, make(chan float64))

	/* For index, element in the list */
	for i, x := range L {

		/* Copy the range variables so the closures
		 * reference the right values */
		__x := x
		__i := i

		/* Define a quick closure and execute it in parallel
		 * as a goroutine via the go () statement */
		go func() {
			/* Calculate square root */
			var root float64 = newtons_method (float64(__x))
			chans[__i] <- root /* Write result to channel */
			close(chans[__i])  /* Close the channel */
		} ()

	for i := range chans {
		x := <- chans[i] /* Read from channel */
		fmt.Println ("Square root of ", L[i], " is ", x)

Things to note:

  1. Yes, there are like ten different ways to declare variables
  2. Yes, there are like ten different ways to declare for loop conditions (and no while loops)
  3. Yes, opening braces (‘{‘) must go on the same line as function definition or condition
  4. There is a new allocation directive called make(…) in addition to new(…)
  5. This program is primarily imperative
  6. Even though there is flexibility in how you define variables, they are still very much strongly typed

Obviously, the most interesting part of this little program is what’s going on in lines [50-55]. This is a function literal and in Go, all function literals are also closures; meaning, variables referenced by the function literal are in-scope for as long as necessary for the literal to complete. In addition, this function literal is preceded and followed by go and (). This executes the literal inside a goroutine, which as discussed earlier, will run concurrently with the main thread and all other goroutines (within reason).

The literal itself calls the newtons_method() function, and writes the return value into the closure’s channel. It then closes the channel, which would normally indicate that the closure has completed its work and executed. The values written to each of the respective channels will wait to be read, even after the goroutine has exited.

I mentioned earlier that you can play around with some pseudo-OO in Go, so I’ll give a brief example:

/* Interface definition - any structure which
 * implements newtons_method (x float64)
 * also implements this interface */
type SqrtInterface interface {
	newtons_method ()

/* Structure definition - this is also
 * a SqrtInterface type */
type SqrtPair struct {
	x float64
	sqrt_x float64

/* Overloaded newtons_method() which is bound
 * to pointers of type SqrtPair. Will reference
 * the members of the 'calling' struct. */
func (sp *SqrtPair) newtons_method () {

	/* ... */

	sp.sqrt_x = newtons_method (sp.x)

/* This does nothing except call member functions
 * of SqrtInterface interface objects */
func compute_for_pair (sp SqrtInterface) {
	sp.newtons_method ()

func main () {

	/* Note sp has type *SqrtPair */
	sp := new (SqrtPair)
	sp.x = 17
	compute_for_pair (sp)
	fmt.Println ("Square root of ", sp.x, " is ", sp.sqrt_x)

I hope that blows your mind, because it blew mine. Let me illustrate what’s going on:

  • Define an interface of type SqrtInterface which is basically empty except for a member function called newtons_method()
  • Define a structure of type SqrtPair with a couple of floats
  • Embed a function called newtons_method() into structures of type SqrtPair*
  • SqrtPair now implements the interface SqrtInterface
  • SqrtPair.newtons_method() can now be called on instantiated SqrtPair structures acting as SqrtInterface objects which modifies their internal members even though the method wasn’t present in the initial structure definition

So obviously there’s a lot of cool stuff happening inside Go. TIOBE ranks Go as the world’s 21st most popular programming language at the time of this post (interpret these rankings however you wish), beating out D, arguably one of its closest competitors, at 33rd. GitHub has a huge pile of Go projects. There’s no doubt that Go is a very powerful language, which is even supported by a GCC backend in addition to its standard compiler. It also comes with an enormous standard library with built-in items like HTTP servers. I like Go a lot, but there are some nagging (and probably petty) issues I have with it which probably means I won’t be using it as my language of choice in the near future:

  • Although minimalistic, I find the syntax kind of random. In some sense it can beneficial to mix the best aspects of Python and Erlang and C syntax together, I think it makes the end result kind of messy. For example, spliceVar = append(spliceVar, item) vs. mapVar[key] = item
  • I am frustrated that I can define variables ten different ways, including not needing to specify variable type, but I can’t put the type before the variable definition.
  • Similarly, for a language so flexible, I don’t know why it’s required to put braces on opening lines, and wrap one-line loops and if-statements in braces.
  • No templates. How can there be no templates you ask? There just aren’t. I don’t know why.
  • Although technically not object-oriented, you can mix in elements of OO as you see fit. I feel that this can lead to the same mix of paradigms that drives C++ people insane.
  • “Exported” variables and functions are denoted by title-case, getting rid of ‘extern’ and ‘public’. I don’t know what sort of problem this is trying to solve, but I suspect it can just lead to more confusion.

But to end on a positive note, a list of Go features I love playing around with:

  • Goroutines and channels
  • Closures / function literals
  • Huge standard library, including built-in RPC
  • Slices
  • Multiple return values (so good!)